Strontium carbonate

Short Description:

Strontium carbonate is a carbonate mineral belonging to aragonite group. Its crystal is needle-like, and its crystal aggregate is generally granular, columnar and radioactive needle. Colorless and white, green-yellow tones, transparent to translucent, glass luster. Strontium carbonate is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and foams.

 * Used in many fields and has a wide range of applications.
 * Inhalation of strontium compound dust can cause moderate diffuse interstitial changes in both lungs.
 * Strontium carbonate is a rare mineral.


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Strontium carbonate is an important industrial raw material with a wide range of uses. It is a carbonate mineral, belonging to the aragonite group, which is relatively rare and occurs in limestone or marlstone in the form of veins. In nature, it mostly exists in the form of mineral rhodochrosite and strontite, coexisting with barium carbonate, barite, calcite, celestite, fluorite and sulfide, odorless and tasteless, mostly white fine powder or colorless rhombic crystal, or gray, yellow-white, green or brown when infected by impurities. Strontium carbonate crystal is needle-shaped, and its aggregate is mostly granular, columnar, and radioactive needles. Its appearance is colorless, white, green-yellow, with transparent to translucent glass luster, fracture oil luster, brittle, and weak light blue light under the cathode ray. Strontium carbonate is stable, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ammonia, ammonium carbonate and carbon dioxide saturated aqueous solution, and insoluble in alcohol. In addition, strontium carbonate is also an important raw material for celestite, a rare mineral source. At present, high-grade celestite is nearly exhausted.



With the continuous development of world industry, the application field of strontium has also expanded. From the 19th century to the beginning of this century, people used strontium hydroxide to make sugar and purify beet syrup; During the two world wars, strontium compounds were widely used in the production of fireworks and signal bombs; In the 1920s and 1930s, strontium carbonate was used as a desulfurizer for steelmaking to remove sulfur, phosphorus and other harmful substances; In the 1950s, strontium carbonate was used to purify zinc in the production of electrolytic zinc, with a purity of 99.99%; In the late 1960s, strontium carbonate was widely used as a magnetic material; Strontium titanate is used as computer memory, and strontium chloride is used as rocket fuel; In 1968, strontium carbonate was applied to color TV screen glass because it was found to be used for good X-ray shielding performance. Now the demand is growing rapidly and has become one of the main application fields of strontium; Strontium is also expanding its application range in other fields. Since then, strontium carbonate and other strontium compounds (strontium salts) as important inorganic salt raw materials have received widespread attention and attention.

As an important industrial raw material, strontium carbonate is widely used in the production of picture tubes, monitors, industrial monitors, electronic components, etc. At the same time, strontium carbonate is also the main raw material for the preparation of metallic strontium and various strontium salts. In addition, strontium carbonate can also be used in the production of fireworks, fluorescent glass, signal bombs, paper making, medicine, analytical reagents, sugar refining, zinc metal electrolyte refining, strontium salt pigment manufacturing, etc. With the increasing demand for high-purity strontium carbonate, such as large-screen color TV sets, color displays for computers and high-performance magnetic materials, etc. The production of strontium products in Japan, the United States, Germany and other developed countries has declined year by year due to the depletion of mineral veins, rising energy costs and environmental pollution. So far, the application market of strontium carbonate can be seen.

Now, we will introduce the specific application of strontium carbonate:

First of all, strontium carbonate is divided into granular and powdery specifications. The granular is mainly used in TV glass in China, and the powder is mainly used in the production of strontium ferrite magnetic materials, nonferrous metal smelting, red pyrotechnic heartliver and the production of high-purity strontium carbonate for advanced electronic components such as PTC, mainly used in the production of TV glass and display glass, strontium ferrite, magnetic materials and nonferrous metal desulfurization, and also used in the production of fireworks, fluorescent glass, Signal bomb, paper making, medicine, analytical reagent and raw materials for manufacturing other strontium salts.

The main uses of strontium carbonate in electronic applications are:

Used for manufacturing color television receiver (CTV) to absorb electrons generated by cathode

1.Manufacture of strontium ferrite for permanent magnets used in loudspeakers and door magnets
2.Production of cathode ray tube for color TV
3.Also used for electromagnets and strontium ferrite
4.Can be made into small motors, magnetic separators and loudspeakers
5.Absorb X-rays
6.It is used for manufacturing some superconductors, such as BSCCO, and also for electroluminescent materials. First, it is calcined into SrO, and then mixed with sulfur to make SrS: x, where x is usually europium.

In the ceramic industry, strontium carbonate plays such a role:

1.It is widely used as an ingredient of glaze.
2.It acts as a flux
3.Change the color of some metal oxides.

Of course, the most common use of strontium carbonate is as a cheap colorant in fireworks.

In short,strontium carbonate is widely used, mainly in the production of TV glass and display glass, strontium ferrite, magnetic materials and nonferrous metal desulfurization and other industries, or in the production of fireworks, fluorescent glass, signal bombs, paper making, medicine, analytical reagents and raw materials for manufacturing other strontium salts.
According to statistics, China has more than 20 enterprises engaged in strontium carbonate production, with a total annual production capacity of 289000 tons, becoming the world's largest producer and consumer of carbonated gills, and exporting to all parts of the world, enjoying a high reputation in the international market. According to the customs statistics, China's exports of strontium carbonate in recent years are respectively 78700 tons in 2003, 98000 tons in 2004 and 33000 tons in 2005, accounting for 34.25%, 36.8% and 39.7% of the country's total output and 52.5%, 54.7% and 57.8% of the international market trade. Celestite, the main raw material of strontium carbonate, is a scarce mineral in the world and is a non-renewable rare mineral resource.

As we all know, strontium is an important mineral resource with a wide range of uses. One of its uses is to process strontium salts, such as strontium carbonate, strontium titanate, nitrate, strontium oxide, strontium chloride, strontium chromate, strontium ferrite, etc. Among them, the largest amount is to produce strontium carbonate.
In China, our strontium carbonate has a certain advantage in terms of supply and production. It can be said that the market prospect of strontium carbonate is promising.

Market analysis of strontium carbonate

Strontium ore resources and production supply

China's strontium reserves account for more than half of the world's total, and it is an advantageous strategic mineral. Strontium ore is a rare metal ore. Strontium is the least abundant element in alkaline earth metals. Strontium ore is mainly composed of minerals containing strontium sulfate (commonly known as "celestite"), with a small global reserves. The global strontium deposits are mainly distributed in China, Spain, Mexico, Iran, Argentina, the United States, Türkiye and other countries. In 2012, China's strontium reserves were about 16 million tons (SrSO4, the same below), more than 50% of the global reserves, ranking first in the world. Strontium ores in China are mainly distributed in Qinghai, Chongqing, Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Xinjiang and other places, with Qinghai reserves accounting for more than 90%. The main mining areas are concentrated in Tongliang and Dazu County of Chongqing, Huangshi City of Hubei Province and Dafeng Mountain of Qinghai Province. In addition, Lishui of Jiangsu Province also has certain reserves. The grade of celestite is the best in Tongliang and Dazu of Chongqing; Hubei Huangshi has a relatively high content of impurities and its production process is relatively complex; Affected by natural conditions and inconvenient transportation, many resources in Qinghai are difficult to exploit and have high transportation costs. In 2012, the static reserve-production ratio of strontium ore in China was 84 years. At the same time, China is also rich in associated strontium ore resources, often associated with phosphate ore, underground brine, lead-zinc ore, barite ore, gypsum ore, etc., accounting for more than 50% of the total resources, with huge resource potential. In general, China's strontium resources are highly protected and belong to the dominant strategic minerals. 1.1.2 The output of strontium ore in China has shown a rapid growth trend, accounting for half of the global output. Since entering the 21st century, the global output of strontium ore has shown a downward trend due to the large reduction in the output of foreign strontium ore. From 2000 to 2012, the output of strontium ore has decreased from 520000 t to 380000 t, a decrease of 27%. The major strontium ore producers in the world are China, Spain, Mexico, Argentina, etc. Among them, in 2007, China's output exceeded Spain and became the world's largest strontium ore producer. In 2012, its output accounted for 50% of the world's share, accounting for "half of the country" (Figure 2); In contrast, the output of strontium ore in other countries has decreased significantly.

Consumption status and future supply and demand situation of strontium ore

The consumption of strontium in China is relatively concentrated. Developed countries apply strontium products to a wider range of emerging industries. China's strontium products are mainly consumed in the glass shell of picture tube, magnetic materials, pyrotechnic materials, etc., of which 40% are consumed in the glass shell of picture tube, mainly television and display instruments; About 30% are consumed in magnetic materials, mainly used in computer storage hard disks and magnetic functional materials. Together, they consume about 70% of strontium products, mainly in traditional electronic equipment and manufacturing industries, with a low proportion in emerging industries.

The demand for strontium in the color TV industry will decline steadily, and the demand in other fields will continue to increase. The rapid development of the color TV industry has driven the rapid increase of strontium consumption in China. At present, China has crossed the peak of the color TV industry, and its output has stabilized. At the same time, with the gradual progress of color display technology, the production process will be gradually updated, and the demand for strontium in this field will show a steady downward trend. There are two main areas of application of magnetic materials. One is the manufacture of traditional computer storage hard disk; The other is the emerging strontium ferrite, which has excellent performance and low price, and is widely used in automobile manufacturing, household appliances, industrial automation and other industries. Although computer manufacturing is basically saturated and has little room for growth, it has great application potential in emerging industries. In general, there is still room for growth in the application of magnetic materials. As a pyrotechnic material, it is widely used in military flares, civil fireworks, aerospace rockets and other fuels. Because of its wide range of applications, in the long run, it has a relatively broad growth space in both traditional and emerging industries. In other application fields, as strontium is a new strategic mineral, its performance and use still have a lot of room for expansion. With the progress of technology, the future application fields and demand prospects are huge.

The demand for strontium in China will peak in 2025~2030, and there are risks in the supply of high-end products

Strontium, as a strategic emerging mineral, with the rapid progress of applied science and technology, its unique and excellent properties will continue to be discovered, and its application fields will also be more and more extensive, and its consumption will be more and more large, especially in emerging industries. Although China's color TV industry and computer manufacturing industry are relatively mature, the demand for strontium will be stable in the region; However, the demand in other fields will continue to increase. In general, China's demand for strontium resources will continue to grow in the future. It is estimated that China's demand for strontium will reach its peak in 2025~2030, and the consumption at the peak will exceed 130000.

According to the above materials, it is not difficult to see that strontium ore is China's dominant strategic mineral, and China's strontium reserves account for about half of the world. At the same time, China also has a large number of associated strontium resources, and the degree of geological work is not high, and the future resource potential is huge, which may have an important impact on the global market in the future. China is the largest strontium producer in the world, accounting for about half of the global output. Among them, a large part of China's strontium output is used for export. It is the world's largest exporter of strontium minerals and products, and an important supplier of resources in the world, making an important contribution to the development of strontium-related industries in the world. China's demand for strontium will continue to grow in the future, and it will reach its peak in 2025~2030. Among them, the demand for strontium in the color TV industry will decline steadily, but the demand for magnetic materials, pyrotechnic materials and other industries has a very large growth space, and the demand prospect is broad.

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Preparation of Strontium Carbonate

 1.Complex decomposition method.
The celestite was crushed and reacted with soda ash solution for 2h at a reaction temperature of 100 ℃. The initial concentration of sodium carbonate is 20%, the amount of sodium carbonate added is 110% of the theoretical amount, and the particle size of ore powder is 80 mesh. Under this condition, the decomposition rate can reach more than 97%. After filtration, the concentration of sodium sulfate in the filtrate can reach 24%. Beat the crude strontium carbonate with water, add hydrochloric acid seasoning slurry to pH3, and after 2~3h at 90~100 ℃, add barium remover to remove barium, and then adjust the slurry with ammonia to pH6.8~7.2 to remove impurities. After filtration, the filtrate precipitates strontium carbonate with ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium carbonate solution, and then filter to remove the ammonium chloride solution. After drying the filter cake, the strontium carbonate product is prepared.




2.Coal reduction method.
Celestite and pulverized coal are crushed to pass 20 meshes as raw materials, the ratio of ore to coal is 1:0.6~1:0.7, reduced and roasted at the temperature of 1100~1200 ℃, after 0.5~1.0h, the calcined material is leached twice, washed once, leached at 90 ℃, soaked for 3h each time, and the total leaching rate can reach more than 82%. The leaching solution is filtered, the filter residue is leached by hydrochloric acid, and strontium is further recovered, and the filtrate is added with mirabilite solution to remove barium, Then add ammonium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate solution to react to generate strontium carbonate precipitation (or directly carbonize with carbon dioxide), and then separate, dry, and grind to produce strontium carbonate products.


2SrS+2H2O → Sr (OH) 2+Sr (HS) 2


3.Thermal solution of strontium siderite.
The strontium siderite and coke are crushed and mixed into a mixture according to the ratio of ore to coke=10:1 (weight ratio). After roasting at 1150~1250 ℃, the carbonates are decomposed to produce clinker containing strontium oxide and other metal oxides. The clinker is leached by three steps, and the best temperature is 95 ℃. The second and third steps can be leached at. Conduct at 70-80 ℃. The leaching solution makes the concentration of strontium hydroxide to be 1mol/L, which is conducive to the separation of impurities Ca2+and Mg2+. Add ammonium bicarbonate to the filtrate for carbonization to obtain strontium carbonate. After separation, drying and crushing, the finished strontium carbonate is obtained.




4. Comprehensive use.
From the underground brine containing bromine and strontium, the strontium containing mother liquor after bromine extraction is neutralized with lime, evaporated, concentrated and cooled, and sodium chloride is removed, and then calcium is removed by caustic soda, and ammonium bicarbonate is added to convert strontium hydroxide into strontium carbonate precipitation, and then rinsed and dried to produce strontium carbonate products.



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